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تقرير بالانجليزي عن العمل-Report in English for work
Business In economics, business is the social science of managing people to organize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals, usually to generate profit.
2011-10-24, 10:14 PM
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In economics, business is the social science of managing people to organize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals, usually to generate profit.
The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the context of the individual as well as the community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commercially viable and profitable work.
The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the singular usage to refer to a particular company or corporation, and the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computer business," or "the business community" -- the community of suppliers of goods and services.
The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entity within an economically free society, wherein individuals organize based on expertise and skills to bring about social and technological advancement.
With some exceptions, (such as cooperatives, non-profit organizations and (typically) government institutions), in predominatly capitalist economies, businesses are formed to earn profit and grow the personal wealth of their owners.
In other words, the owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for their work — that is, the expense of time, energy, and money.
However, the exact definition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, most Marxists use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business." Socialists advocate either government, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses.
Types of businesses
There are 4 main types of business unit:
Sole Proprietorship: a business owned by one person. The owner may operate on their own or may employ others.
Partnership: A partnership is a form of business in which two or more people operate for the common goal of making profit.
Private Limited Company (Ltd): a small to medium sized business that is often run by the family or the small group who own it.
Public Limited Company: a business with limited liability, a wide spread of shareholders and in the UK, a share capital of over £50,000.
There are many types of businesses, and, as a result, businesses can be classified in many ways. One of the most common focuses on the primary profit-generating activities of a business, for example:
Manufacturers produce products, from raw materials or component parts, which they then sell at a profit. Companies that make physical goods, such as cars or pipes, are considered manufacturers.
Service businesses offer intangible goods or services and typically generate a profit by charging for labor or other services provided to government, other businesses or consumers. Organizations ranging from house decorators to consulting firms to restaurants and even to entertainers are types of service businesses.
Retailers and Distributors act as middle-men in getting goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumer, generating a profit as a result of providing sales or distribution services. Most consumer-oriented stores and catalogue companies are distributors or retailers.
Agriculture and mining businesses are concerned with the production of raw material, such as plants or minerals.
Financial businesses include banks and other companies that generate profit through investment and management of capital.
Information businesses generate profits primarily from the resale of intellectual property and include movie studios, publishers and packaged software companies.
Utilities produce public services, such as heat, electricity, or sewage treatment, and are usually government chartered.
Real estate businesses generate profit from the selling, renting, and development of properties, homes, and buildings.
Transportation businesses deliver goods and individuals from location to location, generating a profit on the transportation costs
There are many other divisions and subdivisions of businesses. The authoritative list of business types for North America (although it is widely used around the world) is generally considered to be the North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS. The equivalent European Union list is the NACE.
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